March 6, 2009: The Dow Jones hit its lowest level of 6,443.27, a drop of 54% from its peak of 14,164 on October 9, 2007, over a span of 17 months, before beginning to recover. [233], A 2000 United States Department of the Treasury study of lending trends for 305 cities from 1993 to 1998 showed that $467 billion of mortgage lending was made by Community Reinvestment Act (CRA)-covered lenders into low and mid level income (LMI) borrowers and neighborhoods, representing 10% of all U.S. mortgage lending during the period. A causa de toda a problemática se iniciou dez anos antes, em 1998, quando houve uma liberação de créditos desenfreada nos EUA, mesmo para pessoas que não tinham condições de arcar com as parcelas dos empréstimos. [5][6][7][8][9][10] It was also followed by the European debt crisis, which began with a deficit in Greece in late 2009, and the 2008–2011 Icelandic financial crisis, which involved the bank failure of all three of the major banks in Iceland and, relative to the size of its economy, was the largest economic collapse suffered by any country in economic history. The Great Recession was a period of marked general decline observed in national economies globally that occurred between 2007 and 2009.The scale and timing of the recession varied from country to country (see map). Conhecida como a crise financeira do capitalismo, a problemática foi disseminada ao mundo no dia que ficou batizado como segunda-feira negra.Era 15 de setembro de 2008 quando o banco Lehman Brothers (fundado em 1850) quebrou, um dos mais tradicionais dos Estados Unidos.. Consequentemente, as bolsas de valores despencaram, fazendo com que os governos de … Marea Granate-Paris. A crise de 2008, mais precisamente a partir do mês de setembro, foi antecedida por um período de crescimento econômico estável e pela inflação baixa nos EUA, proporcionando um apetite voraz no ambiente global por investimentos de risco. Grossesse. ", "Overdose: A Film about the Next Financial Crisis", "5 movies that explain what caused the financial crisis, and what happened after", GNU Free Documentation License Version 1.2, Eight Days: the battle to save the American financial system, Effects of the Great Recession on museums, Acquired or bankrupt banks in the late 2000s financial crisis, Homeowners Affordability and Stability Plan, Public–Private Investment Program for Legacy Assets, 2009 Supervisory Capital Assessment Program, Post-Napoleonic Irish grain price and land use shocks, 2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami stock market crash, 2015–2016 Chinese stock market turbulence, List of stock market crashes and bear markets, Federal Reserve v. Investment Co. Institute, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Financial_crisis_of_2007–2008&oldid=995773329, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles with unsourced statements from April 2020, Articles with unsourced statements from November 2018, Articles with unsourced statements from September 2019, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, 2006: After years of above-average price increases, housing prices peaked and, February 27, 2007: Stock prices in China and the U.S. fell by the most since 2003 as reports of a decline in home prices and, January 18, 2008: Stock markets fell to a yearly low as the credit rating of, January 2008: U.S. stocks had the worst January since 2000 over concerns about the exposure of companies that issue, March 18, 2008: In a contentious meeting, the Federal Reserve cut the, Late June 2008: Despite the U.S. stock market falling to a 20% drop off its highs, commodity-related stocks soared as oil traded above $140/barrel for the first time and steel prices rose above $1,000 per ton. Investment banks on Wall Street answered this demand with products such as the mortgage-backed security and the collateralized debt obligation that were assigned safe ratings by the credit rating agencies. This was the largest liquidity injection into the credit market, and the largest monetary policy action in world history. Fuld said he was a victim of the collapse, blaming a "crisis of confidence" in the markets for dooming his firm. Com uma situação bem delicada, o mercado financeiro mundial ficou totalmente desconfiado, tendo em vista que os Estados Unidos são referência no empréstimo de dinheiro a outros países. At the time, the International Monetary Fund (IMF) concluded that it was the most severe economic and financial meltdown since the Great Depression. Consumers are pulling back on purchases, especially on durable goods, to build their savings. 2007. Qu'est-ce qui se passe en Espagne? Shiller, a founder of the Case-Shiller index that measures home prices, wrote an article a year before the collapse of Lehman Brothers in which he predicted that a slowing U.S. housing market would cause the housing bubble to burst, leading to financial collapse. [239] Critics also point out that publicly announced CRA loan commitments were massive, totaling $4.5 trillion in the years between 1994 and 2007. Développement d’un outil de zoom étendue et de … Securitization allowed for shifting of risk and lax underwriting standards: Many mortgages were bundled together and formed into new financial instruments called, Reckless lending by lenders such as Bank of America's. [373] IndyMac Bancorp filed for Chapter 7 bankruptcy in July 2008. v. IndyMac Bancorp, Inc., et al", "Schumer: Don't blame me for IndyMac failure", "IndyMac stops new mortgage loans, to cut workforce by half", "Federal Regulators Close California Mortgage Lender", "FDIC: Failed Bank Information - Bank Closing Information for IndyMac Bank, F.S.B., Pasadena, CA", "IndyMac one of the largest bank failures in U.S. history", "How Much Did Lehman CEO Dick Fuld Really Make? By March 2011, the FDIC had paid out $9 billion to cover losses on bad loans at 165 failed financial institutions. No entanto, pressões políticas rejeitaram garantias para ajudar na compra do Lehman Brothers pelo banco inglês Barclays. The riskiest loans were originated in 2004–2007, the years of the most intense competition between securitizers and the lowest market share for the GSEs. Dividends on common shares had already been suspended for the first quarter of 2008, after being cut in half the previous quarter. [23] Economies worldwide slowed during this period since credit tightened and international trade declined. Low rates of profit in productive sectors led to speculative investment in riskier assets, where there was potential for greater return on investment. [351] According to The Guardian, Roubini was ridiculed for predicting a collapse of the housing market and worldwide recession, while The New York Times labelled him "Dr. Three years later, commercial real estate started feeling the effects. Lax underwriting standards and high mortgage approval rates led to an increase in the number of homebuyers, which drove up housing prices. Considers Bringing Fannie & Freddie Onto Budget", "Financial Crisis Inquiry Commission – story of a security", "Lessons Not Learned From the Housing Crisis", "Credit Swap Disclosure Obscures True Financial Risk", "Who's Who on AIG List of Counterparties", "New theories attempt to explain the financial crisis", "Recipe for Disaster: The Formula That Killed Wall Street", "News Analysis: Another Crisis, Another Guarantee", "The Subprime Turmoil: What's Old, What's New, and What's Next", "The devil is in the tails: actuarial mathematics and the subprime mortgage crisis", "Soros – Rocketing Oil Price is a Bubble", "Was Volatility in the Price of Oil a Cause of the 2008 Financial Crisis? [223][224], A contrarian view is that Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac led the way to relaxed underwriting standards, starting in 1995, by advocating the use of easy-to-qualify automated underwriting and appraisal systems, by designing no-down-payment products issued by lenders, by the promotion of thousands of small mortgage brokers, and by their close relationship to subprime loan aggregators such as Countrywide. Derivatives such as credit default swaps also increased the linkage between large financial institutions. The financial crisis of 2007–2008, also known as the global financial crisis (GFC), was a severe worldwide financial crisis. Lehman Brothers went bankrupt and was liquidated, Bear Stearns and Merrill Lynch were sold at fire-sale prices, and Goldman Sachs and Morgan Stanley became commercial banks, subjecting themselves to more stringent regulation. In comparison, the total assets of the top five bank holding companies in the United States at that point were just over $6 trillion, and total assets of the entire banking system were about $10 trillion. It was a shocking abdication of responsibility. intoxication. Germain Depository Institutions Act, Commodity Futures Modernization Act of 2000, Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences, Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania, IndyMac Bank placed into conservatorship by US Government, House Committee on Oversight and Government Reform, Crash Proof: How to Profit From the Coming Economic Collapse, Meltdown: A Free-Market Look at Why the Stock Market Collapsed, the Economy Tanked, and the Government Bailout Will Make Things Worse, Academy Award for Best Documentary Feature, Academy Award for Best Adapted Screenplay, 2008–2011 bank failures in the United States, List of acquired or bankrupt United States banks in the late 2000s financial crisis, List of acronyms: European sovereign-debt crisis, List of entities involved in 2007–2008 financial crises, New York University Stern School of Business, "The Great Lockdown: Worst Economic Downturn Since the Great Depression", "Three Top Economists Agree 2009 Worst Financial Crisis Since Great Depression; Risks Increase if Right Steps are Not Taken", "A tale of two depressions: What do the new data tell us? October 24, 2008: Many of the world's stock exchanges experienced the worst declines in their history, with drops of around 10% in most indices. Confira! [377][378][379], On May 12, 2008, in the "Capital" section of its last 10-Q, IndyMac revealed that it may not be well capitalized in the future.[380]. All of this created demand for various types of financial assets, raising the prices of those assets while lowering interest rates. The recession, in turn, deepened the credit crunch as demand and employment fell, and credit losses of financial institutions surged. Foreclosure levels were elevated until early 2014. Similarly, the rating agencies relied on the information provided by the originators of synthetic products. IndyMac was taking new measures to preserve capital, such as deferring interest payments on some preferred securities. ", "Mr Rajan Was Unpopular (But Prescient) at Greenspan Party", "Why Nassim Taleb is the True Predictor of this Crisis", "The Black Swan: Quotes & Warnings that the Imbeciles Chose to Ignore", "IndyMac Bancorp Announces Earnings Webcast & Teleconference Call for First Quarter 2008 Financial Results", "Government shuts down mortgage lender IndyMac", "David S. Loeb, Former Chairman of IndyMac Bancorp, Inc., Passes Away", "David Loeb, 79; Founded Mortgage Banking Firms", "Crisis Deepens as Big Bank Fails: IndyMac Seized In Largest Bust In Two Decades", "Audit Report - SAFETY AND SOUNDNESS: Material Loss Review of IndyMac Bank, FSB", "FDIC Board Approves Letter of Intent to Sell IndyMac Federal", "Indymac Bancorp Inc – '10-Q' for 3/31/08", "Irregularity Is Uncovered at IndyMac Bank", "Robert C. Daniels, et al. The de-leveraging of financial institutions, as assets were sold to pay back obligations that could not be refinanced in frozen credit markets, further accelerated the solvency crisis and caused a decrease in international trade. Plan de l'entretient: - présentation et justification du sujet -réponse à la problématique avec [citation needed], CDO issuance grew from an estimated $20 billion in Q1 2004 to its peak of over $180 billion by Q1 2007, then declined back under $20 billion by Q1 2008. ", "Euro crisis imperils recovering global economy, OECD warns", "Americans' wealth drops $1.3 trillion: Fed report shows a decline of home values and the stock market cut the nation's wealth to $50.4 trillion", "Labor Force Statistics from the Current Population Survey", "The global financial crisis and developing countries: taking stock, taking action", "Government Support for Financial Assets and Liabilities Announced in 2008 and Soon Thereafter ($ in billions)", "Federal Reserve Liquidity Provision during the Financial Crisis of 2007–2009", "Fixing Global Finance: A Developing Country Perspective on Global Financial Reforms", Centre for Research on Multinational Corporations, "New $600B Fed Stimulus Fuels Fears of US Currency War", "Helping Buyers Beware: The Need for Supervision of Big Retail", "Who went to jail for their role in the financial crisis? Request PDF | On Jan 1, 2012, Luiz Carlos Bresser-Pereira and others published A crise financeira de 2008 | Find, read and cite all the research you need on ResearchGate "[313], Mortgage risks were underestimated by almost all institutions in the chain from originator to investor by underweighing the possibility of falling housing prices based on historical trends of the past 50 years. For a variety of reasons, market participants did not accurately measure the risk inherent with financial innovation such as MBS and CDOs or understand its effect on the overall stability of the financial system. [306], Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac, two U.S. government-sponsored enterprises, owned or guaranteed nearly $5trillion in mortgage obligations at the time they were placed into conservatorship by the U.S. government in September 2008. At least two major reports on the causes of the crisis were produced by the U.S. Congress: the Financial Crisis Inquiry Commission report, released January 2011, and a report by the United States Senate Homeland Security Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations entitled Wall Street and the Financial Crisis: Anatomy of a Financial Collapse, released April 2011. Financing these deficits required the country to borrow large sums from abroad, much of it from countries running trade surpluses. [253][254] As prices declined, borrowers with adjustable-rate mortgages could not refinance to avoid the higher payments associated with rising interest rates and began to default. C'est alors que nous avons choisi la crise de 1929 ainsi que celle de 2008, espacée de près d'un siècle et qui restent dans une ère proche de celle actuelle. The limitations of a widely used financial model also were not properly understood. O Brasil, apesar de não ter sido atingido em cheio, também teve prejuízos para as empresas e para a população. Crise de 2008 A crise capitalista que estourou em 2008 e que agora ameaça levar o mundo a um novo colapso de maiores proporções, é, em primeiro lugar, uma crise de superacumulação de capital, impulsionada fundamentalmente pela tendência à baixa da taxa geral de … confusion persistante. La Crise De 2008 Régis Vansnick. [31][32], The economic crisis started in the U.S. but spread to the rest of the world. [268] This may have also contributed to the deflating of the housing bubble, as asset prices generally move inversely to interest rates, and it became riskier to speculate in housing. La crise de 1929 est une crise mondiale qui à marqué les esprits. March 12, 2009: Stock market indices in the U.S. rose another 4% after. La Salle Canoas - Globalização - Crise econômica de 2008 Nome: Lucas Moni De David (23) Turma: 22C Professor Orientador: Marcelo Costa 2. I) Les acteurs de la crise A) Les causes de la crise de 2008 La crise de 2008 aussi appelé crise des subprimes commença dans les années 2000. Cracks started appearing early on, when financial markets began behaving in ways that users of Li's formula hadn't expected. [48] Since the 2008 financial crisis, consumer regulators in America have more closely supervised sellers of credit cards and home mortgages in order to deter anticompetitive practices that led to the crisis.[49]:1311. Some or all of the following factors contributed to the crisis:[189][65][66], The relaxing of credit lending standards by investment banks and commercial banks allowed for a significant increase in subprime lending. Although they concede that governmental policies had some role in causing the crisis, they contend that GSE loans performed better than loans securitized by private investment banks, and performed better than some loans originated by institutions that held loans in their own portfolios. La Crise De 2008 Régis Vansnick. 2020-03-11 | O coronavírus e a crise de 2008 by Inversa Publicações published on 2020-03-11T23:02:52Z. More than a third of the private credit markets thus became unavailable as a source of funds. However, as market power shifted from securitizers to originators, and as intense competition from private securitizers undermined GSE power, mortgage standards declined and risky loans proliferated. Plan de l'entretient: - présentation et justification du sujet -réponse à la problématique avec [245], Countering Krugman, Peter J. Wallison wrote: "It is not true that every bubble—even a large bubble—has the potential to cause a financial crisis when it deflates." « La crise de la Zone Euro peut durer 20 ans, affirme Patrick Artus, directeur des études de Natixis. Echoing the central thesis of James Burnham's 1941 seminal book, The Managerial Revolution, Bogle cites issues, including:[342], In his book The Big Mo, Mark Roeder, a former executive at the Swiss-based UBS Bank, suggested that large-scale momentum, or The Big Mo "played a pivotal role" in the financial crisis. Securities with lower priority had lower credit ratings but theoretically a higher rate of return on the amount invested. Objetivos Demonstrar os efeitos da crise econômica de 2008 no Brasil e no Mundo. Had these lowered ratings been in effect at March 31, 2008, IndyMac concluded that the bank's capital ratio would have been 9.27% total risk-based. Saltar ata a navegación Saltar á procura. Recent research casts doubt on the accuracy of "early warning" systems of potential crises, which must also predict their timing. In a Peabody Award winning program, NPR correspondents argued that a "Giant Pool of Money" (represented by $70 trillion in worldwide fixed income investments) sought higher yields than those offered by U.S. Treasury bonds early in the decade. [338], In his 1978 book, The Downfall of Capitalism and Communism, Ravi Batra suggests that growing inequality of financial capitalism produces speculative bubbles that burst and result in depression and major political changes. On the other hand, a homeowner who has no equity is a serious default risk. La crise économique et financière mondiale : enjeux et perspectives Université Saint Joseph de Beyrouth. [242][243] The Congressional Budget Office estimated, in June 2011, that the bailout to Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac exceeds $300 billion (calculated by adding the fair value deficits of the entities to the direct bailout funds at the time). Você sabe o que é o Fascismo? Buscar Buscar. Crise de 2008 A crise capitalista que estourou em 2008 e que agora ameaça levar o mundo a um novo colapso de maiores proporções, é, em primeiro lugar, uma crise de superacumulação de capital, impulsionada fundamentalmente pela tendência à baixa da taxa geral de lucro, uma das leis mais importantes : socialism. Libros. [25][26] From its peak in the second quarter of 2007 at $64.4 trillion, household wealth in the United States fell $14 trillion, to $50.4 trillion by the end of the first quarter of 2009, resulting in a decline in consumption, then a decline in business investment. The cracks became full-fledged canyons in 2008—when ruptures in the financial system's foundation swallowed up trillions of dollars and put the survival of the global banking system in serious peril... Li's Gaussian copula formula will go down in history as instrumental in causing the unfathomable losses that brought the world financial system to its knees. As an Alt-A lender, IndyMac's business model was to offer loan products to fit the borrower's needs, using an extensive array of risky option-adjustable-rate mortgages (option ARMs), subprime loans, 80/20 loans, and other nontraditional products. Until then, depositors would have access their insured deposits through ATMs, their existing checks, and their existing debit cards. Crise de 2008: ANTECEDENTES apresentação dos conceitos fundamentais O comportamento do consumidor Por que usar marketing boca a boca? 311 1.25€ Sujet: La crise de 2008 Problématique: La crise de 2008 a-t-elle accentué les inégalités entre les ménages en France métropolitaine? [256] By August 2008, approximately 9% of all U.S. mortgages outstanding were either delinquent or in foreclosure. Dans les années 1920, les États-Unis vivent dans une ère de prospérité et d'insouciance économiques malgré les signes de faiblesses qui commencent à paraître. The company still had not secured a significant capital infusion nor found a ready buyer. The Financial Crisis Inquiry Commission (FCIC) made the major government study of the crisis. liberação de crédito sem grandes exigências. PIB agregado Estados Unido, Euro área, Japão e Reino Unido –potencial e tendência 2000-2014. Cerrar sugerencias. Toxic securities were owned by corporate and institutional investors globally. Following a model initiated by the 2008 United Kingdom bank rescue package,[40][41] the governments of European nations and the United States guaranteed the debt issued by their banks and raised the capital of their national banking systems, ultimately purchasing $1.5 trillion newly issued preferred stock in major banks. Conditions in financial markets have generally improved in recent months. In Mathieu Deflem (ed. [311] Economists have studied the crisis as an instance of cascades in financial networks, where institutions' instability destabilized other institutions and led to knock-on effects. Examples pertinent to this crisis included: the adjustable-rate mortgage; the bundling of subprime mortgages into mortgage-backed securities (MBS) or collateralized debt obligations (CDO) for sale to investors, a type of securitization; and a form of credit insurance called credit default swaps (CDS). [373], Initially the companies affected were those directly involved in home construction and mortgage lending such as Northern Rock and Countrywide Financial, as they could no longer obtain financing through the credit markets. IndyMac's aggressive growth strategy, use of Alt-A and other nontraditional loan products, insufficient underwriting, credit concentrations in residential real estate in the California and Florida markets—states, alongside Nevada and Arizona, where the housing bubble was most pronounced—and heavy reliance on costly funds borrowed from a Federal Home Loan Bank (FHLB) and from brokered deposits, led to its demise when the mortgage market declined in 2007. [25] U.S. consumption accounted for more than a third of the growth in global consumption between 2000 and 2007 and the rest of the world depended on the U.S. consumer as a source of demand. Others have pointed out that there were not enough of these loans made to cause a crisis of this magnitude. [312], Martin Wolf, chief economics commentator at the Financial Times, wrote in June 2009 that certain financial innovations enabled firms to circumvent regulations, such as off-balance sheet financing that affects the leverage or capital cushion reported by major banks, stating: "... an enormous part of what banks did in the early part of this decade—the off-balance-sheet vehicles, the derivatives and the 'shadow banking system' itself—was to find a way round regulation. Mortgage guarantees by Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac, quasi-government agencies, which purchased many subprime loan securitizations. These entities became critical to the credit markets underpinning the financial system, but were not subject to the same regulatory controls. For example, buying a CDS to insure a CDO ended up giving the seller the same risk as if they owned the CDO, when those CDO's became worthless. Foreclosure rates remained high. Financial institutions invested foreign funds in mortgage-backed securities. U.S. taxpayers provided over $180 billion in government loans and investments in AIG during 2008 and early 2009, through which the money flowed to various counterparties to CDS transactions, including many large global financial institutions.[316][317]. [273], In separate testimony to the Financial Crisis Inquiry Commission, officers of Clayton Holdings, the largest residential loan due diligence and securitization surveillance company in the United States and Europe, testified that Clayton's review of over 900,000 mortgages issued from January 2006 to June 2007 revealed that scarcely 54% of the loans met their originators' underwriting standards. [329] According to the Brookings Institution, at that time the traditional banking system did not have the capital to close this gap: "It would take a number of years of strong profits to generate sufficient capital to support that additional lending volume." Reductions in the growth rates of developing countries were due to falls in trade, commodity prices, investment and remittances sent from migrant workers. [337], In a 1998 book, John McMurtry suggested that a financial crisis is a systemic crisis of capitalism itself. [251] This housing bubble resulted in many homeowners refinancing their homes at lower interest rates, or financing consumer spending by taking out second mortgages secured by the price appreciation. The cooperative banking sector had 20% market share of the European banking sector, but accounted for only 7% of all the write-downs and losses between the third quarter of 2007 and first quarter of 2011. [43] Significant controversy accompanied the bailouts, such as in the case of the AIG bonus payments controversy, leading to the development of a variety of "decision making frameworks", to help balance competing policy interests during times of financial crisis. [305] These five institutions reported over $4.1 trillion in debt for fiscal year 2007, about 30% of U.S. nominal GDP for 2007. "[247] Other analysts support the contention that the crisis in commercial real estate and related lending took place after the crisis in residential real estate. [383], When home prices declined in the latter half of 2007 and the secondary mortgage market collapsed, IndyMac was forced to hold $10.7 billion of loans it could not sell in the secondary market. Monografia: crise de 2008 1. First quarter of 2009: For the first quarter of 2009, the annualized rate of decline in GDP was 14.4% in Germany, 15.2% in Japan, 7.4% in the UK, 18% in Latvia, April 2, 2009: Unrest over economic policy and bonuses paid to bankers resulted in the. Revistas. But it did not reveal some of that $47 million capital it claimed it had, as of March 31, 2008, was fabricated. ", "The Great Recession & the Great Depression", "Volatility in Asian stock markets and global financial crisis", "5 of the World's Most Devastating Financial Crises", "A guide to the financial crisis — 10 years later", "Sources and Uses of Equity Extracted from Homes", "Home Equity Extraction: The Real Cost of 'Free Cash, "Spending boosted by home equity loans: Greenspan", "Pain Spreads as Credit Vise Grows Tighter", "Lehman Files for Bankruptcy; Merrill Is Sold", "Lloyds Bank Is Discussing Purchase of British Lender", "Factbox–U.S., European bank write-downs, credit losses", "Dollar tumbles as huge credit crunch looms", "World Economic Outlook: Crisis and Recovery, April 2009", "The U.S. Financial and Economic Crisis: Where Does It Stand and Where Do We Go From Here? Several followers of heterodox economics predicted the crisis, with varying arguments. [391], IndyMac Bancorp filed for Chapter 7 bankruptcy on July 31, 2008. There is strong evidence that the riskiest, worst performing mortgages were funded through the "shadow banking system" and that competition from the shadow banking system may have pressured more traditional institutions to lower their underwriting standards and originate riskier loans. "Diffusion of Fraud Through Subprime Lending: The Perfect Storm." "a combination of excessive borrowing, risky investments, and lack of transparency" by financial institutions and by households that put the financial system on a collision course with crisis; ill preparation and inconsistent action by government and key policy makers lacking a full understanding of the financial system they oversaw that "added to the uncertainty and panic". Household spending has shown further signs of stabilizing but remains constrained by ongoing job losses, lower housing wealth, and tight credit. However, AIG did not have the financial strength to support its many CDS commitments as the crisis progressed and was taken over by the government in September 2008.

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